WEEK 2- Globalisation, Media Flows and Saturation coverage
O’Shaughnessy, Michael 2012, ‘Globalisation’, in Media and society’, 5th ed, Oxford University Press, South Melbourne, Vic, pp. 458-471, accessed 9 August, 2018. https://tr.uow.edu.au/uow/file/e01a63f7-0d98-4c21-8b3b-9b259ada70a9/1/o%27shaughnessy-2012-458-471.pdf
Within Chapter 25 of this book, Michael simply starts addressing globalisation and it’s deep and meaningful understanding as a key concept, then delving into its historical past and transitional impact over time, categorising different global impacts, such as economic, political and military. He varies into two views within the chapter, discussing both the utopian and dystopian concepts within Globalisation, but importantly the impact media and globalised communication powers hold in our society. Moreover, Michael distinctively manages to discuss course theories and concepts such as ‘The Global village’, ‘Imagined communities’, ‘Theory of network society’ and ’Cultural imperialism’ by acknowledging and further discussing the importance of their authors work. As well as providing various sources ranging from cartoons and advertisements, allowing a further discussion about the on-going loss of cultural diversity and difference in the day and age of Global communication at the pursuit of profit, a crucial issue discussed across Global Media and Culture subjects. Whilst categorising utopian concepts, Michael presents globalisation and global media as a freely shared, and interactive media, world-wide, aiming to deliver knowledge, as well as both eye-opening and informative information. Instead of presenting a one-sided concept he also engages with several statistics and ethnographic studies to further explore dystopian concepts, as corporate convergence, commodification and cultural imperialism become issues, especially as he draws on specific examples such as ‘culturalized dominance’ within Hollywood and American film and music industries. But importantly Michael concludes saying we should make the best of globalisation, and its technological advancements, teaching students like myself to understand more than one bias within Globalisation and media flows.
2010, ‘The media industry and globalisation’, online video, 1 March, McNiven Devon, viewed 9 August 2016 <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=amzcVwKE3Oc>
Titled, ‘The Media Industry and Globalisation’, published by Devon McNiven, for the University of Ottawa, the short, but concrete video covers several aspects within the new and ever-growing media industry, and importantly it’s powerful impact on Globalisation. Through both visual and literary sources, the audience is outlined both the positive and negative aspects of media industries within globalisation. Media is presented as an engineer of political and economic grooming, allowing for a knowledge economy, conveying a deeper understanding for global media students, like myself that these aspects become a striking force for globalisation and the world we currently live in with all its cultural, economic and political values. Globalisation of media industries becomes categorized, described as an uneven flow of information within global systems, therefore increasing the global level of connectedness, allowing a greater sense of homogenization and standardization. An excerpt of Investigative reporter, ‘George Monbiot’ is included, which helps support the on-going idea of economic knowledge, and easy global distribution of information. Introducing capitalistic ideologies in the video, allows for a different bias, as the speaker shifts from a positive tone to a negative, portraying globalisation and the media as a vital force for promoting consumerism to the public, with the exploitation of third-world countries, a major problem within current contemporary society. Evidently, both the negative and positive outcomes in this video, allow for students to not only be limited to one viewpoint, but use sources like YouTube, alongside scholarly content to further discuss the rising world of the media as a tool that brings the globe together.
WEEK 3- Internationalising higher education: learning and teaching
Preisler, Bent, 2011, Chapter 10, pp. 192-211 ‘International Students at China Three Gorges University: A Survey Language and Learning in the International University: From English Uniformity to Diversity and Hybridity’, Channel View Publications, accessed 16 August, 2018 ProQuest EBook Central, <http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/uow/detail.action?docID=837801>
Within Chapter 10 of this book, there is a concrete connection to economic globalisation, importantly the global use of English allowing internationalisation of higher education all over the world. The chapter specifically focuses on primary research, as the authors of the book conducted a survey on a sample of students within a specific Chinese university, to obtain information on classroom life, learning, use of languages, culture differences and suggestions for improvement in each aspect. Students ranged from countries and cultures all around the world, and answered a series of both open-ended and closed ended questions, providing students like myself with both qualitative and quantitative findings, significant to research assignments and useful for analysis, as there were a range of percentages, even graph and table results. As the survey was conducted within the environment of a Chinese university, it was fascinating to see a range of results, perspectives and opinions from a group of international students living within a foreign country. As a research student, researching and gathering information from only Australian universities would limit my findings, and research, but using a source like this can become the backbone for improvement across a global scale of internationalised higher education programs worldwide. Although the increasing amount use of statistics used in the chapter may create confusion and an overload of information, the key message of Internationalisation to become acculturated into a new academic and cultural community becomes significant within the primary findings in this chapter, which becomes significant in the context of Global Media and Culture.
Babara, Blessinger, 2017, 13 October, ‘The case of internationalisation for higher education’, University World News, accessed 16 August 2018, <http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20171010115112828>
The online article submitted by University professors, Blessinger and Cozza address Globalisation impacting internationalisation of higher education, and this becomes explained throughout three waves, as the article historically presents the impact of modern globalisation on higher education. The acknowledgment of university partnerships becoming a priority in a globalised world within this source, allow university global media students witness and understand the different types of partnerships and programs that are striving to improve international engagements, but it also discusses that there is ‘no one-size-fits-all internationalisation model’. In this case, the article becomes very broad, as it doesn’t entirely focus on one specific country or nation within the topic, but it does manage to mention an example within European context, stating higher education must respond to a continually changing environment. Which becomes insightful, as the impact of modern globalisation in our society is continually changing all aspects of life, including higher education and the programs and partnerships that assimilate with them, and within the context of global media and culture, it is important such aspects of continuity and change within a contemporary society. Although, the article does identify international higher education as dynamic and presented with challenges, it does not further expand beyond these points, suggesting methods or actions improving inter-cultural education and diversity. Instead it simply ends with mentioning internationalism being more than just student mobility. Otherwise the article becomes useful in discussing the overall change of globalisation impacting internationalism of higher education as a marginal activity to a now global partnership focusing on institutional reputation and quality.
WEEK 4: Global Film: Nollywood and Korean Cinema
Redfern, Rachel, 2013, 16 July, ‘3 countries with booming movie industries that are not America’, Mic Network Inc, accessed 17 August, 2018, https://mic.com/articles/54609/3-countries-with-booming-movie-industries-that-are-not-the-u-s#.k5rzFU0Jo
From the title of the article, ‘Three countries with booming movie industries, that are not the U.S.’ the major competitor becomes America, but also it becomes crucial that even the title itself allows audiences to notice the growth of modern globalisation, as society is now noticing global film industries. South Korea, Africa and India, become the competitors of this age, and Redfern draws out several informative, new and insightful facts about each and their industry, ones that students like myself may have never known or heard of. As much as film industries are explained in the article, Redfern also touches on the entertainment industry with South Korea and Bollywood (India) becoming significant global dominators, not only in cinema but also popular music. “Nigerianisation”, a word with origins dating back to the 1950s in Africa, but also a word that carries worry, as Redfern explains Nigerian culture will respond out to more regional cultures and dialects. Which can be further discussed within Global culture, as other industries such as American tend to dominate internationally, as globalised economics becomes complex and challenged. The list of various examples of films, and documentaries in the article can also become paramount to gain further insight within each global industry, as many film consumers like myself are used to a range of Westernised film industries. The article lacks in more analysis, but otherwise allows for an increased discussion on global film industries, such as South Korean films, Nollywood, and Bollywood.
Ibbi Ali, Andrew, 2014, CINEJ Cinema Journal, Vol 3, Iss 1, Pp 93-106, ‘Hollywood, The American Image and The Global Film Industry’, University of Pittsburgh, 2014, accessed 17 August, 2018, Language: English, Database: Directory of Open Access Journals <file:///Users/juliabelikova/Downloads/81-617-1-PB.pdf>
As given by the name, this journal specifically focuses on Hollywood as a dominator of cultural product onto film industries all over the world. Ibbi, presents the process of ‘Hollywoodization’, and goes onto explaining how international exploration of entertainment is at the effect of Westernisation. His bias changes significantly as he directs America as a nation that has tainted and altered cultural identity, as the influence of Hollywood is significant across global industries in India, China and Nigeria. Within Global media studies, it become extremely important to understand the impact of Westernisation, as the journal provides detailed arguments, targeting America as a ‘global brand’, as well as covering the theory of cultural imperialism. As a media student, ideologies are always considered crucial and the article manages to cover a range of different ideologies and their historical presence with the influence of Hollywood. The article also allows for students like myself to also understand Hollywood becoming inspiring, as Asian. Nigerian and Indian filmmakers adopt and gain several techniques in their production, allowing such monumental growth within the global film industry. Overall the bias is considered negative, but seeks to become informative and crucial as students myself can become educated in certain concepts and terms even when discussing a topic like Global film. The article becomes useful, as it covers the emergence of Nollywood, Chinese films and Bollywood, and each of their moral and cultural concepts, but also serves an analysis of each one of these global industries being impacted by Hollywood and Westernisation.